Facktidskrifter som publicerat PA-relevanta artiklar

(Professional journals which published PA relevant articles)


Några av tidskrifterna nedan är relativt små men de uppfyller veterligen alla kravet på att de har en peer-reviewprocess före publicering - alltså att artiklarna granskats av oberoende och anonym expertis före publicering. Listan nedan bryts nu upp i två listor, A och B,  där den mindre (B), längst ned på denna sida, samlar ihop de arbeten som publicerats och där författarna in-tagit en negativ inställning till PA-begreppet. De flesta av de senare arbetena har bemötts (dessa bemötanden kommer också att inkluderas nedan - framför allt pga att författarna vantolkat eller inte ens nämnt den viktigaste teoretiska grunden för hur PA-dynamiken fungerar. I några fall har dessa artiklar inkluderat felaktiga förutsättningar och oheder-ligt förfarande med avseende på statistiska analyser och annat.


ENGLISH: The list below is currently is being split into a List A and a List B - the latter covering publications misrepresenting the PA concept, based on irrelevant assumptions, biased statistics, political views etc - including rebuttals etc.


From April 2020 and on, I (BC) began to list "PA references" I found in the professional litterature. Some of these journals do not mention PA specifically but deal with the concept of PA. A few of the listed journals are relatively small but they all fulfill the criterion that the articles have been peer-reviewed before publication. The code "BH" below refers to references found in "Z. Biringen & J.J. Harman, Parents acting badly, 2016" in which PA is a major topic.


The present  number of professional journals below which deal with the concept of PA (usual-ly mentions the words "parental alienation") is 117. A few of the references are book reviews so say that there are at least 110 such journals to avoid exaggeration./BC, 3 November 2021.


List A


American Journal of Family Law

   Kenneth H. Waldron & David E. Joanis: Understanding and collaboratively treating parental alienation syndrome. American Journal of Family Law, Vol. 10,1996:121–133.

   Demosthenes Lorandos, Parental Alienation, Traditional Therapy and Family Bridges: What Works,
What Doesn’t and Why: Part I of II. American Journal of Family Law, Vol. 33 (4), 2020:415-423.

   Demosthenes Lorandos, Parental Alienation, Traditional Therapy and Family Bridges: What Works,
What Doesn’t and Why: Part II of II. American Journal of Family Law, Vol. 34 (1), 2020:9-17.

American Journal of Family Therapy

   Nancy Rainey Palmer, Legal recognition of the parental alienation syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 16(4), 1988:361-363.

   G.F. Cartwright, Expanding the parameters or parental alienation syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 21(3), 1993:205-215.   Comment: With reference to Nancy Palmer (1988, above) Cartwright states: "...clear and forceful judgements serve to put an immediate stop to the alienating practices".

   Richard A. Gardner, Differentiating between parental alienation syndrome and bona fide abuse-neglect. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 27(2), 1999:97-107.
   Richard A. Gardner,
Family therapy of the moderate type of parental alienation syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 27(3), 1999:195-212.

   Richard A. Warshak, Remarriage as a Trigger for Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 28(3), 2000:229-241.

   Despina Vassiliou & Glenn F. Cartwright, The Lost Parents' Perspective on Parental Alienation Syndrome, The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 29(3), 2001:181-191.

   Richard A. Gardner, Parental Alienation Syndrome vs. Parental Alienation: Which Diagnosis Should Evaluators Use in Child-Custody Disputes? The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 30(2), 2002:93-115.

   Richard A. Gardner, Denial of the Parental Alienation Syndrome Also Harms Women.The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 30(3), 2002:191-202.

   Richard A. Gardner, Does DSM-IV Have Equivalents for the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) Diagnosis? The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 31(1), 2003:1-21.

   Ron Meister, Review of Therapeutic Interventions for Children with Parental Alienation Syndrome. (Book Review). The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 31(4), 2003:321-324.
   Richard A. Gardner,
The Relationship Between the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) and the False Memory Syndrome (FMS). The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 32(2), 2004:79-99.

   Carlos A. Rueda, An Inter-Rater Reliability Study of Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 32(5), 2004:391-403.

   Amy J.L. Baker, The Long-Term Effects of Parental Alienation on Adult Children: A Qualitative Research Study. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 33(4), 2005:289-302.

   Ed Spruijt, Bianca Eikelenboom, Janneke Harmeling, Robin Stokkers & Helga Kormos, Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) in the Netherlands. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 33(4), 2005:303-317.

   Terence W. Campbell, Why doesn't parental alienation occur more frequently? The significance of role discrimination. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 33(5), 2005:365-377.

   Amy J.L. Baker, Patterns of Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Qualitative Study of Adults Who were Alienated from a Parent as a Child. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 34(1), 2006:63–78.

   Amy J.L. Baker, The Power of Stories/Stories about Power: Why Therapists and Clients Should Read Stories About the Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 34(3), 2006:191-203.

   Collette C. Summers & David M. Summers, Parentectomy in the Crossfire. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 34(3), 2006:243-261.

   Amy J.L. Baker, Knowledge and Attitudes About the Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Survey of Custody Evaluators. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 35(1), 2007:1-19.

   James N. Bow, Jonathan W. Gould & James  R. Flens, Examining Parental Alienation in Child Custody Cases: A Survey of Mental Health and Legal Professionals. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 37(2), 2009:127-145.

   Amy J.L. Baker, Even when you win you lose: Targeted parents' perceptions of their attorneys. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 38(1), 2010:1-18.

   Elizabeth M. Ellis & Susan Boyan, Intervention Strategies for Parent Coordinators in Parental Alienation Cases. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 38(3), 2010:218-236.
   Amy J.L. Baker, Even When You Win You Lose: Targeted Parents' Perceptions of Their Attorneys. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 38(4), 2010:292-309.

    Shayne R. Anderson, Stephen A. Anderson, Kristi L. Palmer, Matthew S. Mutchler & Louisa K. Baker,  Defining High Conflict. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 39(1), 2011:11-27.

   Deirdre C. Rand, Parental Alienation Critics and the Politics of Science. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 39(1), 2011:48-71.
   Florence W. Kaslow, A Review of “Parental Alienation: DSM-5 and ICD-11 ”William Bernet (Ed). (2010). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd., 240 pp. (Book Review). The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 39(3), 2011:274-276.

   Aaron J. Hands & Richard A. Warshak, Parental Alienation Among College Students. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 39(5), 2011:431-443.

   Naomi Ben-Ami & Amy J.L. Baker, The Long-term Correlates of Childhood Exposure to Parental Alienation on Adult Self-sufficiency and Well-being. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 40(2), 2012:169-183.

   David L. Levy & Richard Sauber, Review of "The Parental Alienation Syndrome," by Richard A. Gardner. (Book Review). The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 40(4), 2012:364-367.

   Paz Toren, Benjamin L. Bregman, Elisheva Zohar-Reich, Galit Ben-Amitay, Leo Wolmer & Nathaniel Laor, Sixteen-Session Group Treatment for Children and Adolescents With Parental Alienation and Their Parents. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 41(3), 2013:187-197.

   Amy Bernard, Review of “Toxic Divorce: A Workbook for Alienated Parents,” by Kathleen M. Reay. (Book Review).  The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 41(4), 2013:358-359. Reviews on Amazon.

   Laura G. Sweeney, Reviews of "The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Family Therapy and Collaborative System Approach to Amelioration," by Linda J. Gottlieb and "Parental Alienation Syndrome-Disorder: A Serious Form of Psychological Child Abuse With Case Examples," by Wilfrid von Boch-Galhau. (Book Reviews). The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 42(1), 2014:92-94.

   Teresa Junco López, Victoria Eugenia Nieves Iglesias & Paula Fernandez García, Parental Alienation Gradient: Strategies for a Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 42(3), 2014:217–231.

   Richard A. Warshak, Poisoning Parent-Child Relationships Through the Manipulation of Names. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 43(1), 2015:4–15.

   Megan M. Mroczkowski & Stephen Bates Billick, Review of "Parental Alienation: The Handbook for Mental Health and Legal Professionals," edited by Demosthenes Lorandos, William Bernet, and S. Richard Sauber. (Book Review). The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 43(1), 2015:99-101.

   Kathleen M. Reay, Family Reflections: A promising therapeutic program designed to treat severely alienated
children and their family system. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 43(2), 2015:197-207.

   Stephen Beiner, Review of "Surviving Parental Alienation: A Journey of Hope and Healing," by Amy J. L. Baker and Paul R. Fine. (Book Review). The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 43(2), 2015:211-212. Reviews on  Amazon. In brief at Amy J.L. Baker's website.

   Richard A. Warshak, Risks to Professionals Who Work With Troubled and Alienated Parent-Child Relationships. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 44(3), 2016:111-128.

   Amy J.L. Baker & Maria C. Verrocchio, Exposure to Parental Alienation and subsequent anxiety and depression in Italian adults. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 44(5), 2016:255–271.

   Caitlin Bentley & Mandy Matthewson, The Not-Forgotten Child: Alienated Adult Children’s Experience of Parental Alienation. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 48(5), 2020:509-529.

   Sun Ah Lim & Jin Lee, Gender Differences in the Relationships between Parental Marital Conflict, Differentiation from the Family of Origin, and Children’s Marital Stability. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 48(5), 2020:546-561.

   Mark D. Roseman, Parental Alienation: Science and Law. (Book Review). The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 49(4), 2021:426-427.

   Saulyn Lee-Maturana, Mandy Metthewson & Corinna Dwan, Understanding Targeted Parents’ Experience of Parental Alienation: A Qualitative Description from Their Own Perspective. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 49(5), 2021:499-516.

   Fuat Torun, Sebahat Dilek Torun & Mandy Matthewson, Parental Alienation: Targeted Parent Experience in Turkey, The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. XX, 2021:1-XX.

   William Bernet, Recurrent Misinformation Regarding Parental Alienation TheoryThe American Journal of Family Therapy, 2021:1-15 (in press).

American Journal of Forensic Psychology

   Deirdre Conway Rand, The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome (part I). American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Vol. 15(3), 1997:23-52.

   Deirdre Conway Rand, The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome (part II). American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Vol. 15(4), 1997:39-92. Note that this article consists of three html files - click at the bottom of each of the individual html files to go to either of the other two files.

   Jeffrey C. Siegel & Joseph S. Langford, MMPI-2 validity scales and suspected parental alienation.
American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Vol. 16(4), 1998:5-14.

   Richard A. Warshak,  Current Controversies Regarding Parental Alienation Syndrome. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Vol. 19(3), 2001:29-59.
   Richard A. Gardner, Should courts order PAS children to visit/reside with the alienated parent? A Follow-Up Study. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Vol. 19(3), 2001:60-106.
   
Richard A. Warshak, Misdiagnosis of Parental Alienation Syndrome. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 20(2), 2002:31-52.

   Deirdre Conway Rand, Randy Rand & Leona Kopetski, The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome (part III): The Kopetski follow up study. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Vol. 23(1), 2005:15-43.

   Amy J.L. Baker, Parent alienation strategies: A qualitative study of adults who experienced parental alienation as a child. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 23(4), 2005:41-63.

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

     Judith S. Wallerstein & Joan B. Kelly, The effects of parental divorce: Experiences of the child in later

latency. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 46(2), 1976:256-269.   Comment: This paper deals with the concept of PA but by the time of publication, the term PA/PAS had not yet been coined.

Annales Médico-psychologiques (In French)

    Paul Bensussan, L’aliénation parentale : vers la fin du déni? Annales Médico-psychologiques, Vol. 167(6), 2009:409-415.    Comment: Abstract in English.

Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association

    Katherine C. Andre, Parent Alienation SyndromeAnnals of the American Psychotherapy Association, Vol. 7(4), 2004:7-11.

    Amy J.L. Baker & Katherine Andre, Working with alienated children and their targeted parents: Suggestions for sound practices for mental health professionals. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, Vol. 11(2), 2008:10-17.

Annals of the International Communication Association

    Kristina M. Scharp & Elizabeth Dorrance Hall, Family marginalization, alienation, and estrangement: questioning the nonvoluntary status of family relationships. Annals of the International Communication Association, Vol. 41(1), 2017:28-45.

    Comment: The authors clearly discuss communication and other phenomena that are consistent with PA but they also more or less consistently avoid directly referring to PA/PAS except in a separate paragraph where Richard Gardner is referred to. In addition, many references are made to PA papers.

Australian Family Lawyer

    Kenneth Byrne, Brainwashing in Custody Cases: The Parental Alienation Syndrome. Australian Family Lawyer, Vol. 4(3), 1989:1-5.

Australian Journal of Family Law

    Sandra S. Berns, Parents behaving badly: Parental alienation syndrome in the family court – magic bullet or poisoned chalice. Australian Journal of Family Law, Vol. 15(3), 2001:191–214.

Australian Journal of Psychology

    Sian Balmer, Mandy Matthewson & Janet Haines, Parental alienation: Targeted parent perspective. Australian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 70(1), 2017:91-99.

    Saulyn Lee‐Maturana, Mandy Matthewson, Corinna Dwan & Kimberley Norris, Characteristics and experiences of targeted parents of parental alienation from their own perspective: A systematic literature review. Australian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 71(2), 2019:83-91.

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Australian & New Zealand Journal of  Family Therapy

    Suzanne Jenkins, Are Children Protected in the Family Court? A Perspective from Western Australia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of  Family Therapy, Vol. 23(3), 2013:145-152.

Behavioral Sciences & the Law

    Hollida Wakefield & Ralph Underwager, Sexual abuse allegations in divorce and custody disputes. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Vol. 9(4), 1991:451-468.

Boston College Law Review

    Kelly Schwartz, The Kids Are Not All Right: Using the Best Interest Standard to Prevent Parental Alienation and a Therapeutic Intervention Approach to Provide Relief. Boston College Law Review, Vol. 56(2), 2015:803-840.

Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry (Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria)

    Roberta Pena, Hélio Lauar & Alcina Barros, Forensic psychiatry assessment during parental alienation claims: two cases with different outcomesBrazilian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 42(4), 2020:453-454.

British Journal of Social Work

    Greg Mantle, Tina Moules, Ken Johnson, Jane Leslie, Sarah Parsons & Ray Shaffer. Whose Wishes and Feelings? Children’s Autonomy and Parental Influence in Family Court Enquiries." British Journal of Social Work, Vol. 37, 2007:785–805.

    Comment: In this paper the authors discuss parental custody care, parental influence, parental manipulation

aimed at ‘turning the child against the other parent’ (context of coaching and brainwashing) and parental separation - obviously a publication discussng parts of the concept of PA but the authors do not use the term "parental alienation".

Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne

    M.H. Gagné, S. Drapeau & R. Hénault, L'aliénation parentale: Un bilan des connaissances et des controverses [Parental alienation: An overview of research and controversy]. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, Vol. 46(2), 2005:73–87.

Child Abuse & Neglect

    Jodi Death, Claire Ferguson & Kylie Burgess, Parental alienation, coaching and the best interests of the child: Allegations of child sexual abuse in the Family Court of Australia. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 94(Article 104045), 2019:1-10.

Child Abuse Review

    Nigel Blagg & Eva Godfrey, Exploring Parent–Child Relationships in Alienated versus Neglected/Emotionally Abused.  Children using the Bene‐Anthony Family Relations Test. Child Abuse Review, Vol. 27(6), 2018:486-496.

Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America

    William Bernet, Child custody evaluations. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 11(4), 2002:781-804.

    Douglas Darnall, The Psychosocial Treatment of Parental Alienation. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 20(3), 2011:479-494.

Child and Family Social Work

    Ricky Finzi-Dottan, Hadass Goldblatt & Orlee Cohen-Masica, The experience of motherhood for alienated mothersChild and Family Social Work, Vol. 17, 2012:316-325.

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Child Development

    Su Yeong Kim, Yang Hou & Yolanda Gonzalez, Language Brokering and Depressive Symptoms in Mexican‐American Adolescents: Parent–Child Alienation and Resilience as Moderators. Child Development,Vol. 88(3), 2017:867-888.

Children and Youth Services Review

    Jennifer J. Harman, Sadie Leder-Elder & Zeynep Biringen, Prevalence of adults who are the targets of parental alienating behaviors and their impact. Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 106, 104471, 2019:1-13.

    T.M. Marques, I. Narciso & L.C. Ferreira, Empirical research on parental alienation: A descriptive literature review. Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 119, 2020.

Clinical Psychology Review (in Croatian)

    Daniel Turkat, Ometanje susreta djeteta i roditelja u razvodu (Child visitation interference in divorce. ). Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 14(8), 1994:737-742.

Clinical Social Work Journal

    Virginia H. Luftman, Lane J. Veltkamp, James J. Clark, Sharon Lannacone & Howard Snooks, Practice Guidelines In Child Custody Evaluations for Licensed Clinical Social Workers. Clinical Social Work Journal, Vol. 33(3), 2005:327-357.

Cogent Psychology

    Alan M. Jaffe, Melanie J. Thakkar & Pascale Piron, Denial of ambivalence as a hallmark of parental alienation. Cogent Psychology, Vol. 4, 2017:1-15.

Colorado Lawyer

    Leona. Kopetski, Identifying cases of parent alienation syndrome, Part I. Colorado Lawyer, 27(2), 1998:65–68.

    Leona Kopetski, Identifying cases of parent alienation syndrome, Part II. Colorado Lawyer, 27(3), 1998:63–66.

Communication Reports

    Lindsey S. Aloia & Claire Strutzenberg, Parent–Child Communication Apprehension: The Role of Parental Alienation and Self-Esteem. Communication Reports, Vol. 32(1), 2019:1-14 (first version/online).

Contemporary Family Therapy

    Ludwig F. Lowenstein, Parent Alienation Syndrome: A Two Step Approach Toward a Solution. Contemporary Family Therapy, Vol. 20, 1998:505-520.

Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice

    J. Rowen & R. Emery. Examining parental denigration behaviors of co-parents as reported by young adults and their association with parent–child closeness. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 3(3), 2014:165–177.

Court Review

    Ira Daniel Turkat, On the Limitations of Child-Custody Evaluations, Court Review, Vol. 42(2), 2005:8-13.

    Comment: This paper is indirectly relevant for PA but only briefly gives a reference to PA.
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Cultic Studies Review

    Amy J.L. Baker, The Cult of Parenthood: A Qualitative Study of Parental Alienation. Cultic Studies Review, Vol. 4(1), 2005:1-20.

Current Directions in Psychological Science

    Jennifer J. Harman, William Bernet, and Joseph Harman, Parental Alienation: The Blossoming of a Field of Study. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 28(2), 2019:212-217.

Current Opinion in Psychology

    Jennifer J. Harman, Mandy Matthewson & Amy J.L. Baker, Losses experienced by children alienated from a parent. Current Opinion in Psychology, Vol. 43, 2022:7-12.

Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care

    Herbert Schreier, Munchausen by Proxy. Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care, Vol. 34(3), 2004:126-143.

    Comment: Munchausen by Proxy (also called Factitious Disorder Imposed on Another) sometimes occur in cases of PA.

Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja (Finnish Medical Journal, in Finnish)

    Helinä Häkkänen-Nyholm, Alienation of a child from one parent in divorce situation (In Finnish). Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja, Vol. 126(5), 2013:499-505.

EC Paedriatrics

    Wilfrid Von Boch-Galhau, Christiane Förster & Jorge Guerra González, “Demosthenes Lorandos, William Bernet, and SR Sauber (2013) Parental Alienation: Handbook for Mental Health and Legal Professionals”. (Book Review). EC Paediatrics, Vol. 7(8), 2018: 820-822.

L’Encéphale (In French)

    Paul Bensussan, Aliénation parentale, abus psychologique de l’enfant et DSM-5. L’Encéphale, Vol. 43, 2017:510-515.

    Comment: In this article it is explained in detail how PA is covered by five of the already existing diagnosis in DSM-5.

Epidemiology and Psychiatry Sciences

   Xiaoxiao Sun, Xuemei Qin, Mengjia Zhang, Aigang Yang, Xiaomei Ren & Qin Dai, Prediction of parental alienation on depression in left-behind children: A 12-month follow-up investigation. Epidemiology and Psychiatry Sciences, Vol. 30, 2021:1-8.

Éthique et Famille (in French)

    Jean-Pierre Cambefort, Le Syndrome d'aliénation parentale : Menace pour la cohésion familiale. Éthique et Famille, 2011:155-172.

European Psychiatry

    A.C.W.S. Salles B.M.Paulo J. de Matos, P-679 - Parental alienation - a seven year old girl with a long story in the Brazilian court. European Psychiatry, Vol. 27, Supplement 1, 2012 (one page?).  Comment: This could possibly be from a proceedings publication or something similar.

    Q. Dai, G. Yang, C. Hu, L. Wang, K. Liu, Y. Guang, R. Zhang, S. Xu, B. Liu, Y. Yang & Z.Z. Feng, The alienation of affection toward parents and influential factors in Chinese left-behind children. European Psychiatry, Vol. 39, 2017:114-122.

Family and Conciliation Courts Review

    Mary Lund, A therapist's view of parental alienation syndrome. Family and Conciliation Courts Review,

Vol. 33(3), 1995:308-316.

    Ex: Anita Vestal, Mediation and parental alienation syndrome: Considerations for an intervention model. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, Vol. 37(4), 1999:487-503.

    Richard A. Warshak, Blanket restrictions: Overnight contact between parents and young children. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, Vol. 38(4), 2000:422-445.      Comment: I (BC) do not have access to this publication but from what I can indirectly read about the article, it seems highly relevant for PA.

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Family Court Review

    Janet R. Johnston & Joan B. Kelly, Guest Editorial Notes. Family Court Review, Vol. 39(3), 2005:246-248.

    Joan B. Kelly and Janet R. Johnston, The Alienated Child: A Reformulation of Parental Alienation Syndrome. Family Court Review, Vol. 39(3), 2001:249-266.

    Justice R. James Williams, Should Judges Close the Gate on PAS and PA? Family Court Review, Vol. 39(3), 2001:267-281.

    S. Margaret Lee & Nancy W. Olesen, Assessing for Alienation in Child Custody and Access Evaluations.

 Family Court Review, Vol. 39(3), 2001:282-298.

    Matthew J. Sullivan & Joan B. Kelly, Legal and Psychological Management of Cases with an Alienated ChildFamily Court Review, Vol. 39(3), 2001:299-315.

    Janet R. Johnston, Marjorie Gans Walters & Steven Friedlander, Therapeutic Work with Alienated Children and Their Families. Family Court Review, Vol. 39(3), 2001:316-333.

    Lewis Zirogiannis, Evidentiary Issues with Parental Alienation SyndromeFamily Court Review, Vol. 39(3), 2001:334-343.

   Richard A. Gardner, Commentary on Kelly and Johnston's "The Alienated Child: A Reformulation of Parental Alienation Syndrome". Family Court Review, Vol. 42(4), 2004:611-621.

   Janet R. Johnston & Joan B. Kelly, Rejoinder to Gardner's "Commentary on Kelly and Johnston's 'TheAlienated Child: A Reformulation of Parental Alienation Syndrome'". Family Court Review, Vol. 42(4), 2004:622-628.

    Janet R. Johnston, Soyoung Lee Soyoung Lee, Nancy W. Olesen & Marjorie G. Walters, Allegations and Substantiations of Abuse in Custody.Disputing Families. Family Court Review, Vol. 43(2), 2005:283-294.

    Barbara Jo Fidler & Nicholas Bala, Guest editors' introduction to special issue on alienated children in divorce and separation: Emerging approaches for families and courts. Family Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:6-9.

   Barbara Jo Fidler & Nicholas Bala, Children Resisting Postseparation Contact with a Parent: Concepts, Controversies and Conundrums. Family Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:10-47.

   Richard A. Warshak, Family Bridges: Using Insights_from_Social Science to Reconnect Parents and Alienated Children. Family Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:48-80.

   Joan B. Kelly, Commentary on "Family Bridges: Using Insights from Social Science to Reconnect Parents and Alienated Children (Warshak, 2010). Family Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:81-90.

   Richard A. Warshak & Mark R. Otis, Helping alienated children with family bridges: Practice, research, and the pursuit of humbitionFamily Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:91-97.

    Steven Friedlander & Marjorie Gans Walters, When a Child Rejects a Parent: Tailoring the Intervention to Fit the ProblemFamily Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:98-111.

    Janet R. Johnston & Judith Roth Goldman, Outcomes of Family Counseling Interventions with Children who Resist Visitation: An Addendum to Friedlander and Walters (2010). Family Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:112-115. Translation into French.

    Matthew J. Sullivan, Peggie A. Ward & Robin M. Deutsch, Overcoming Barriers Family Camp: A Program for High-Conflict Divorced Families where a Child is Resisting Contact with a ParentFamily Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:116-135.

    Peter G. Jaffe, Dan Ashbourne &  Alfred A. Mamo, Early Identification and Prevention of Parent-Child Alienation: A Framework for Balancing Risks and Benefits of InterventionFamily Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:136-152.

    Richard A. Warshak, Alienating audiences from innovation: The perils of polemics, ideology, and innuendoFamily Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:153-163.

    Nicholas Bala, Suzanne Hunt & Carolyn McCarney, Parental Alienation: Canadian Court Cases 1989–2008Family Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:164-179.

    Hon. Donna J. Martinson, One case–one specialized judge: Why courts have a duty to manage alienation and other high-conflict cases. Family Court Review, Vol. 48(1), 2010:180-189.

    Kirk Weir, High-conflict contact disputes: Evidence of the extreme unreliability of some children's ascertainable wishes and feelingsFamily Court Review, Vol. 49(4), 2011:788-800.

    L.R. Greenberg, L.D. Fick & R.A. Schnider, Catching them before Too Much Damage is Done: Early
Intervention with Resistance-Refusal Dynamics, Family Court Review, Vol. 54(4), 2016:548-563.

    Barbara Jo Fidler & Nicolas Bala (Eds.), Guest editors’ introduction to the 2020 special issue on parent-child contact problems: Concepts, controversies & conundrums. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:265-269.

    Janet J. Johnston & Matthew J. Sullivan, Parental alienation: In search of common ground for a more differentiate theory. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:270-292.

    William Bernet, Parental alienation and misinformation. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:293-307.

    Aaron Robb, Methodological challenges in social science: Making sense of polarized and competing
research claims. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:308-321.

    Demosthenes Lorandos, Parental alienation in U.S. Court, 1985 to 2018. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:322-339.

    Madelyn S. Milchman, Robert Geffner & Joan S. Meier, Ideology and rhetoric replace science and reason in
some parental alienation literature and advocacy: A critique. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:340-361.

    William Bernet, Response to “Ideology and Rhetoric Replace Science and Reason in Some Parental Alienation Literature and Advocacy: A Critique,” by Milchman, Geffner, and Meier. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:362-367.

    Benjamin D. Garber, Dynamics, not Diagnoses. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:368-370.

    Demosthenes Lorandos, Response to Milchman, Geffner, and Meier Ideology and Rhetoric Replace Science and Reason in Some Parental Alienation Literature and Advocacy: A Critique. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:371-372. (No abstract is available)

    Aaron Robb, Misdirection and Double Standards Fail to Clarify Controversial Issues in Social Science. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:373-374. (No abstract is available)

    Madelyn S. Milchman, Robert Geffner & Joan S. Meier, Putting Science and Reasoning Back Into the “Parental Alienation” Discussion: Reply to Bernet, Robb, Lorandos, and Garber. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:375-385.

    Benjamin D. Garber, Sherlock Holmes and the case of resist/refuse dynamics: Confirmatory bias and abductive inference in child custody evaluations. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:386-402.

    Fiona Morrison, E. Kay M. Tisdall & Jane E. M. Callaghan, Manipulation and domestic abuse in contested
contact - threats to children’s participation rights. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:403-416.

    Michael Saini, Taini Laajasalo & Stacy Platt, Gatekeeping by allegations: An examination of verified, unfounded, and fabricated allegations of child maltreatment within the context of resist and refusal dynamics. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:417-431.

    Richard Warshak, Risks and Realities of Working with Alienated Children. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:432-455.

    Jackie Campbell, Children resisting contact with a parent due to abuse, alienation, or other causes: Can a proactive role for lawyers contribute to better outcomes? Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:456-469.

    Robin Deutsch, Leslie Drozd, & Chioma Ajoku, Trauma-informed interventions in parent-child contact cases. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:470-487.

    Lyn R. Greenberg, & Robert A. Schnider, We’re still taking x-rays but the patient is dying: What keeps us
from intervening more quickly in resist-refuse cases? Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:488-506.

    Shely Polak, Tom Altobelli & Linda Popielarczyk, Responding to severe parent-child rejection cases with-out a parentectomy: A blended sequential intervention model and the role of the courts. Family Court Review,
Vol. 58(2), 2020:507-524.

    Rebecca Bailey, Deborah Dana, Elizabeth Bailey & Frank Davis, The application of the polyvagal theory to high conflict co-parenting cases. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:525-543.

    Philip Marcus, Innovative programs in Israel for prevention & responding to parental alienation:
Education, early identification and timely, effective intervention. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:544-559.

    Francine Cyr, Karine Poitras & Elizabeth Godbout, An interdisciplinary case management protocol for child resistance or refusal dynamics. Family Court Review, 58(2), 2020:560-575.

    Barbara Jo Fidler & Nicolas Bala, Concepts, Controversies and Conundrums of Alienation: Lessons Learned in a Decade and Reflections on Challenges AheadFamily Court Review, 58(2) 576-603.

Family Law Quarterly

    Richard A. Warshak, Bringing Sense to Parental Alienation: A Look at the Disputes and the Evidence Family Relations. Family Law Quarterly, Vol. 37(2), 2003:273-301.

    Michele A. Adams, Framing Contests in Child Custody Disputes: Parental Alienation Syndrome, Child Abuse, Gender, and Fathers’ Rights. Family Law Quarterly, Vol. 40(2), 2006:315-338.

Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies

    Richard A. Warshak, Payoffs and Pitfalls of Listening to Children. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Science, Vol. 52(4), 2004:373-384.

Family Science Review

   Edward Kruk, Parental Alienation as a Form of Emotional Child Abuse: Current State of Knowledge and Future Directions for Research. Family Science Review, Vol. 22(4), 2018:141-164.

Florida Bar Journal

   Michael R. Walsh & J. Michael Bone. Parental alienation syndrome: An age old custody problem. Florida Bar Journal, June, 1997:93-96.

   Robert A. Evans, Treatment considerations with children diagnosed with PAS. Florida Bar Journal, Vol. 80(4), 2006:69-72.

Frontiers in Psychology

    Maria C. Verrocchio, Daniela Marchetti & Mario Fulcheri, Perceived Parental Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Psychological Distress in Adults Whose Parents are Separated/Divorced. Frontiers in Psychology,

Vol. 6(Article 1760), 2015:1-9.

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes

    Maria C. Verrocchio, Daniela Marchetti, Danilo Carrozzino, Angelo Compare & Mario Fulcheri, Depression and quality of life in adults perceiving exposure to parental alienation behaviors. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Vol. 17, Article 14, 2019:1-9.

International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

    Leo Sher, Parental Alienation: The Impact on Men's Mental Health. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, Vol. 29(3), 2017 (Mini Review, Published on line 13 November 2015).

Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Science

    Jenna Rowen & Robert E. Emery, Parental Denigration Boomerangs Versus Alienates: Parent-Child Closeness, Reciprocity, and Well-Being Using Multiple Informants. Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Science, Vol. 68(1), 2019:119-134.

International Cultic Studies Association

    Amy JL. Baker, Resisting the pressure to choose between parents: A school-based program. International Cultic Studies Association, Vol. 3(1), 2012:8-13. (BH)

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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

    Hongsheng Liu, Lige Liu & Xiaoyi Jin, The Impact of Parental Remote Migration and Parent-Child Relation Types on the Psychological Resilience of Rural Left-Behind Children in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 17(15), 5388, 2020:1-19.

International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences: Annual Review

    Christine Giancarlo & Kara Rottmann, Kids Come Last: The Effect of Family Law Involvement in Parental Alienation. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences: Annual Review, Vol. 9, 2015:27-42. (BH)

International Journal of Psychology

   Stan Korosi, A Hopeful Presentation on Reconnection and Reunification after a History of Parental Alienation. International Journal of Psychology (Special Issue: 31st International Congress of Psychology, 24–29 July 2016, Yokohama, Japan), Vol. 51(S1), 2016:580.

International Journal of Law and Psychiatry

   Anna Lubrano Lavadera, Stefano Ferracuti & Marisa Malagoli Togliatti, Parental alienation syndrome in Italian legal arguments: An exploratory study. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Vol. 35, 2012:334-342. (BH)

   Philip Marcus, The Israel Family Court – Therapeutic jurisprudence and jurisprudential therapy from the start. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Vol. 63, 2019:68-75.

International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice

    Deborah Goldfarb, Sidnei Priolo-Filho, Janelle Sampana, Donna Shestowsky, Samara Wolpe, Lucia C. A. Williams & Gail S. Goodman,  International Comparison of Family Court Professionals’ Perceptions of Parental Alienation and Child Sexual Abuse Allegations. International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice, Vol. 2(4), 2019:323-341.

International Lawyer

    Barbara Bevando Sobal & M. William Hilton, Article 13 (b) of the Hague Convention Treaty: Does It Create a Loophole for Parental Alienation Syndrome—an Insidious Abduction? International Lawyer, Vol. 35(3), 2001:997-1025.

Irish Journal of Family Law

    Brian O'Sullivan, The Alienated Child, Irish Journal of Family Law, Vol. 16(1), 2013:20-23.

Issues in Child Abuse Allegations

    Hollida Wakefield & Ralph Underwager, Manipulating the Child Sexual Abuse System. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations (Institute for Psychological Therapies), Vol. 1(2), 1989:58-67.

    Deirdre Conway Rand, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: Integration of Classic and Contemporary Types. Issues in Child Abuse Allegations, Vol. 2(2), 1990:83-89.   Comment: Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy, MSP, is sometimes part of alienating behavior - in this article PAS is referred to as a subtype of MSP.

    Hollida Wakefield & Ralph Underwager, Personality characteristics of parents making false accusations of sexual abuse in custody disputes. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations (Institute for Psychological Therapies), Vol. 2(3), 1990:121–136. (BH)

    Deirdre Conway Rand, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: A Complex Type of Emotional Abuse Responsible for Some False Allegations of Child Abuse in Divorce. Issues in Child Abuse Allegations, Vol. 5(3), 1993:xx-xx.

Journal of Child and Family Issues

     Paolo Roma, Daniela Marchetti, Cristina Mazza, Eleonora Ricci, Lilybeth Fontanesi & Maria Cristina Verro-cchio, A Comparison of MMPI-2 Profiles Between Parental Alienation Cases and Custody Cases. Journal of Child and Family Issues, 26 August, 2021:1-11 (in press).

Journal of Child and Family Studies

    Maria Cristina Verrocchio & Amy J.L. Baker, Italian Adults' Recall of Childhood Exposure to Parental Loyalty Conflicts. Journal of Child and Family Studies,Vol. 24(1), 2013:95-105.

    Amy J. L. Baker & Maria Cristina Verrocchio, Parental Bonding and Parental Alienation as Correlates of Psychological Maltreatment in Adults in Intact and Non-intact Families. Journal of Child and Family Studies,Vol. 24(10), 2015:3047-3057.

    Laura Lamminen, Book Review: Linda J. Gottlieb: The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Family Therapy and Collaborative Systems Approach to AmeliorationJournal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 22(6), 2013:879-880.

   Ana Tavares, Carla Crespo & Maria Teresa Ribeiro, Psychological adaptation and beliefs in targeted parents: A study in the context of parental alienation. Journal of Child and Family Studies. Vol. 29(8), 2020:2281-2289.

   Ana Tavares, Carla Crespo & Maria Teresa Ribeiro, What Does it Mean to be a Targeted Parent? Parents’ Experiences in the Context of Parental Alienation. Journal of Child and Family Studies. Vol. 30(1), 2021:1370-1380.
Journal of Child Custody

   Marjorie Gans Walters & Steven Friedlander, Finding a Tenable Middle Space: Understanding the Role of Clinical Interventions When a Child Refuses Contact with a Parent. Journal of Child Custody, Vol. 7(4), 2010:287-328.

   Philip Marcus, Parental responsibilities: Reformulating the paradigm for parent–child relationships Part 2:
Who has responsibilities to children and what are these responsibilities? Journal of Child Custody, Vol. 14(2-3), 2017:1-28.

   Bruna Calado, Henry Otgaar & Peter Muris, Are children better witnesses than adolescents? Developmental trends in different false memory paradigms. Journal of Child Custody, Vol. 15(4), 2019:330-348.

   Comment: This journal has published other articles opposed to the concept of PA.

Journal of Clinical Psychology

   Linda S. Smith, Family-Based Therapy for Parent-Child Reunification. Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 72(5), 2016:498-512.

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Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

   T.M. Yates, A.J. Tracy & S.S. Luthar, Nonsuicidal self-injury among "privileged" youths: Longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches to developmental process. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 76(1), 2008:52-62.   Comment:  This paper mentions PA.

Journal of Divorce & Remarriage

   John Dunne & Marsha Hedrick, The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Analysis of Sixteen Selected Cases. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 21(3/4), 1994:21-38.

   Richard A. Gardner, Recommendations for Dealing with Parents who Induce a Parental Alienation Syndrome in Their ChildrenJournal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 28(3/4), 1998:1-23.

    Lon Paul Bokker, Roy C. Farley & William Bailey, The Relationship Between Custodial Status and Emotional Well-being Among Recently Divorced Fathers. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 44(3-4), 2006:83-98.

    Amy J.L. Baker & Douglas Darnall, Behaviors and Strategies Employed in Parental Alienation. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 45(1/2), 2006:97-124.

    Amy JL Baker & Douglas C. Darnall, A construct study of the eight symptoms of severe parental alienation syndrome: a survey of parental experiences. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 47(1/2), 2007:55–76.

    Amy J.L. Baker & Jaclyn Chambers. Adult recall of childhood exposure to parental conflict: Unpacking the black box of parental alienation. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 52(1), 2011:55-76.

    Amy J.L. Baker & Naomi Ben-Ami, To Turn a Child Against a Parent Is To Turn a Child Against Himself: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Exposure to Parental Alienation Strategies on Self-Esteem and Well-Being. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 52(7), 2011:472-489.

    Jennifer Gerber Moné, David Macphee, Sharon K. Anderson & James H. Banning,  Family members’ narratives of divorce and interparental conflict: implications for parental alienation. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 52(8), 2011:642-667.

    Elisabeth Godbout & Claudine Parent, The Life Paths and Lived Experiences of Adults Who Have Experienced Parental Alienation: A Retrospective Study. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 53(1), 2012:34-54.

   Jennifer Gerber Moné & Zeynep Biringen, Assessing Parental Alienation: Empirical Assessment of College Stu-dents' Recollections of Parental Alienation During Their Childhoods. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 53(3), 2012:157-177.

    Amy J.L. Baker & Maria C. Verrocchio, Italian College Student-Reported Childhood Exposure to Parental Alienation: Correlates With Well-Being. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 54(8), 2013:609-628.

    Amy J.L. Baker& Amy Eichler. The linkage between parental alienation behaviors and child alienation. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage. Vol. 57(7), 2016:475-484.

    Gena A. Rowlands, Parental Alienation: A Measurement Tool. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 60(4), 2019:316-331.

   Richard A. Warshak, Reclaiming Parent–Child Relationships: Outcomes of Family Bridges with Alienated Children, Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 60(8), 2019:645–667.

Journal of Emotional Abuse

   Janet R. Johnston, Marjorie G. Walters & Nancy W. Olesen, Is It Alienating Parenting, Role Reversal or Child Abuse? A Study of Children's Rejection of a Parent in Child Custody Disputes. Journal of Emotional Abuse,

Vol. 5(4), 2005:191-218.

Journal of Family Issue

   C. Poustie, M. Matthewson & S. Balmer, The Forgotten Parent: The Targeted Parent Perspective of Parental Alienation. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 39(12), 2018:3298-3323.

   Jay Fagan & Marina Barnett, The Relationship Between Maternal Gatekeeping, Paternal Competence, Mothers' Attitudes About the Father Role, and Father Involvement. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 24(8), 2003:1020-1043.    Comment: This paper is not referring to PA but some of what has been studied is relevant for the PA topic.

   Paolo Roma, Daniela Marchetti, Cristina Mazza, Franco Burla & Maria Cristina Verrocchio, MMPI-2 Profiles of Mothers Engaged in Parental Alienation. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 42(8), 2021:722-740.

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention

    Wilfrid von Boch-Galhau, Christiane Förster & Jorge Guerra Gonzalez, Book Review: Demosthenes Lorandos, William Bernet & Richard Sauber (2013), Parental Alienation: Handbook for Mental Health and Legal Professionals. Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention, Vol. 5(6), 2013:115-117.
   
Saulyn Lee-Maturana, Mandy Matthewson & Corinna Dwan, Ten Key Findings on Targeted Parents’ Experiences: Towards a Broader Definition of Parental Alienation. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 0(0), 2021:1-29, in press).

Journal of Family Psychology

    Jennifer J. Harman, Zeynep Biringen, Ellen M. Ratajack, Pearl L. Outland & Allyson Kraus, Parents Behaving Badly: Gender Biases in the Perception of Parental Alienating Behaviors. Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 30(7), 2016:866-874.

Journal of Family Therapy

    Kate Templer, Mandy Matthewson, Janet Haines  & Georgina Cox, Recommendations for best practice in response to parental alienation: findings from a systematic review. Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 39(1), 2017:103-122.

Journal of Family Violence

    Jennifer J. Harman, Demosthenes Lorandos, Zeynep Biringen & Caitlyn M. Grubb, Gender Differences in the Use of Parental Alienating Behaviors. Journal of Family Violence, Vol. 35(5), 2020:459-469.

    Ira Daniel Turkat, Divorce related malicious mother syndrome. Journal of Family Violence, Vol. 10(3), 1995:253-264.

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Journal of Forensic Sciences

    William Bernet, Amy J. L. Baker & Maria C. Verrocchio, Symptom Checklist‐90‐Revised Scores in Adult Children Exposed to Alienating Behaviors: An Italian Sample. Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 60(2), 2015:357-362.

    Amy J.L. Baker, Mariann Asayan & Alianna LaCheen-Baker, Best Interest of the Child and Parental Alienation: A Survey of State Statutes. Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 61(4), 2016:1011-1016.

    William Bernet, Nilgun Gregory, Ronald P. Rohner & Kathleen M. Reay, Measuring the Difference Between Parental Alienation and Parental Estrangement: The PARQ-Gap. Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 65(4), 2020:1225-1234.

Journal of Personality

    Robert S. Horton, Geoff Bleau, and Brian Drwecki, Parenting narcissus: what are the links between parenting and narcissism? Journal of Personality, Vol. 74(2), 2006:345-376. (BH)

    Comment: In this article narcissism is analyzed in the "softer" sense - not the formal psychiatric diagnosis NPD. The authors discuss "healthy" as well as "unhealthy" narcissism. "Parental alienation" is not mentioned as words in the paper but the concept is clearly built into the text, for example (p. 350): " According to this perspective, narcissism develops when the parent regards the child as a means by which to satisfy selfish motives, not as an individual to be nurtured. In this unfortunate case, the parent’s identity is enmeshed with the child’s, and the parent subverts the development of the child’s independent sense of self rather than risk a symbolic loss to his or her own self." 

Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services

    M.M. Farkas, An introduction to parental alienation syndrome. Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services, Vol. 49(4), 2011:20-26.

Journal of Psychopathology

    Alberto Siracusano, Ylenia Barone, Giulia Lisi & Cinzia Niolu, Parental alienation syndrome or alienating parental relational behaviour disorder: a critical overview. Journal of Psychopathology, Vol. 21, 2015:231-238.

Journal of Social Welfare and Law

   Adrienne Barnett, A genealogy of hostility: parental alienation in England and Wales. Journal of Social Welfare and Law, Vol. 42(1), 2020:18-29. Comment: This article seems critical to the PA concept.

Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

   William Bernet, Case study: allegations of abuse created in a single interviewJournal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol.36(7), 1997:966-970.

   William Bernet, Marianne Z. Wamboldt & William E. Narrow, Child Affected by Parental Relationship Distress. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 55(7), 2016:571-579.

   William Bernet, Wrongful Allegations of Sexual and Child Abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 56(8), 2017:713-714.

Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers

   Ira Turkat, Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Review of Critical Issues. Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, Vol. 18, 2002:131-176.

   Richard A. Warshak, Parental Alienation: Overview, Management, Intervention, and Practice Tips.

Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, Vol. 28, 2015:181-248.

Journal of the American Academy of  Psychiatry and the Law

   Janet R. Johnston, Parental alignments and rejection: An empirical study  of alienation of children of divorce. Journal of the American Academy of  Psychiatry and the Law, Vol. 31, 2003:158-170. (BH) 

   Timothy M. Houchin, John Ranseen, Phillip A.K. Hash & Daniel J. Bartnicki, The parental alienation debate belongs in the courtroom, not in DSM-5. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Vol. 40(1), 2012:127-131.

Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis

   Richard A. Gardner, Sex-abuse hysteria: Diagnosis, etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, Vol. 37(3), 1993:2-5.

Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l'Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent

    Normand Carrey, Coasting to DSM-5 - Parental Alienation Syndrome and Child Psychiatric Syndromes: We are what and who we define (Editorial), Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l'Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent, Vol. 20(3), 2011:163.

    P. Susan Penfold, Book Review: Adult Children of Parental Alienation Syndrome: Breaking the Ties That Bind (Amy JL Baker). Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l'Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent, Vol. 17(4), 2008:232.

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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Duk Soo Moon, Myung Hoon Lee, Dong Sun Chung & Young Sook Kwack, Custody Evaluation in High-conflict Situations Focused on Domestic Violence and Parental Alienation SyndromeJournal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 31(2), 2020:66-73.

Juvenile and Family Court Journal

    Patricia van Horn & Betsy Mcalister Groves, Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Making Trauma‐Informed Custody and Visitation Decisions. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, Vol. 57(1),  2009:51-60.

    La Revue d'Action Juridique et Sociale (in French)

        Jean Pannier, Autorité parentale: Droit de visite et d'hébergement: Aliénation parentale [Parental authority: Rights of access and accommodation: Parental alienation]. La Revue d'Action Juridique et Sociale, 2007:27058-27062.

    Maltrattamento e Abuso all’Infanzia (In Italian)

        Marisa Malagoli Togliatti & Franci Marta, La sindrome di alienazione genitoriale (PAS): Studi e ricerche. Maltrattamento e Abuso all’Infanzia, Vol. 7(3), 2005:39-63.

       Maria C. Verrocchio & D. Marchetti, L’intervento nei casi di alienazione genitoriale: Una rassegna sistematica della letteratura [Intervention in cases of parental alienation: A systematic review of the literature]. Maltrattamento e Abuso All'Infanzia: Rivista Interdisciplinare, 19(1), 2017:67–83.

    Michigan Family Law Journal

        Ashish S. Joshi, Parental Alienation: The Problem (Part One of a Two-Part Series). Michigan Family Law Journal, Vol. 46(8), 2016:7-10.

        Ashish S. Joshi, Parental Alienation: Remedies (Part Two of a Two-Part Series). Michigan Family Law Journal, Vol. 46(9), 2016:6-12.

        Ashish S. Joshi, Parental Alienation and the Role of GALs and LGALs (Part One of Two). Michigan Family Law Journal, Vol. 48(7), 2018:20-25.

        Ashish S. Joshi, Parental Alienation and the Role of GALs and LGALs (Part Two of Two). Michigan Family Law Journal, Vol. 48(8), 2018:17-22.

        Ashish S. Joshi, Temporary No-Contact Orders: The Necessary Ingredient for Effective Reunification in Cases Involving Parental Alienation. Part 1. Michigan Family Law Journal, Vol. 50(2), 2020:XX-XX.

       Ashish S. Joshi, Parental Alienation and Domestic Violence: Two Sides of the Same Coin.  Part 1. Michigan Family Law Journal, Vol. 50(8), 2020:13-17.

        Ashish S. Joshi, Parental Alienation and Domestic Violence: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Part 2. Michigan Family Law Journal, Vol. 50(10), 2020:11-17.

    Neuropsychiatrie (In German, Also translated into English and Swedish)

        W. von Boch-Galhau, Parental Alienation (Syndrome) - Eine ernst zu nehmende Form von psychischer Kindermisshandlung. Neuropsychiatrie, Vol. 32, 2018:133-148.

    Papeles del Psicólogo / Psychologist Papers

        R. Vilalta & Maxime Winberg Noda, On the myth of parental alienation syndrome (PAS) and the DSM-5. Psychologist Papers, Vol. 38(3), 2017:224-231.    Comments: The authors deflect from the PA issue in two ways:

    1. They do not discuss PA as a pathological family dynamic - the focus is built around the semantics relating to PAS.  2. The concept of PA is built into five already existing diagnosis in the DSM-5.

    New Hampshire BAR Journal

        Peggie Ward & J. Campbell Harvey, Family Wars: The Alienation of Children. New Hampshire BAR Journal, Vol. 34(1), March 1993:___.

    North Dakota Law Review

        Douglas Darnall, Parental Alienation: Not in the Best Interest of the Children North Dakota Law Review, Vol. 75(2), 1999:323-364.

        Louann C. McGlyn, Parent and Child-Custody and Control of Child: Parental Alienation: Trash Talking the Non-Custodial Parent Is Not Okay. North Dakota Law Review, Vol. 77(3), 2001:525-548.

    NYSBAR Family Law Review

        Chaim Steinberger, Father? What Father? Parental Alienation and Its Effect on Children. Part One. NYSBAR Family Law Review, Vol. 38(1), 2006:10-24.

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    Paidéia

        Paula Inez Cunha Gomide, Everline Bedin Camargo & Marcia Gonzales Fernandes, Análise das Propriedades Psicométricas da Escala de Alienação Parental. (Analysis of the psychometric properties of a parental alienation scale.) Paidéia, Vol. 26(65), 2016:291-298.

    Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

       Benjamin D. Garber, Therapist alienation: Foreseeing and forestalling dynamics undermining therapies with children. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 35(4), 2004:357–363.

       Richard A. Warshak, Ten parental alienation fallacies that compromise decisions in court and in therapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 46(4), 2015:235-249.

       Michael R. Bütz & F. Barton Evans, Factitious disorder by proxy, parent alienation, and the argument for interrelated multidimensional diagnoses. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 50(6), 2019:364-375.

    Psicologia Psicoterapia e Salute (in Italian)

        Maria Cristina Verrocchio, La Sindrome di Alienazione Genitoriale. Psicologia Psicoterapia e Salute, Vol. 13(3), 2007: 371-396.

    Psicopatología Clínica Legal y Forense (in Spanish)

        M. Cartié, R. Casany, R. Domínguez, C. Gamero, C. García, M. González & C. Pastor, Análisis descriptivo de las características asociadas al síndrome de alienación parental (SAP) [Descriptive analysis of characteristics associated with parental alienation syndrome (PAS)]. Psicopatología Clínica Legal y Forense, Vol. 5(1-3),  2005:5-29.

    Psicothema (in Spanish)

       Marisol Lila & Enrique Gracia, Determinants of parental acceptance-rejection. Psicothema, Vol. 17(1), 2005:107-111.

       Ramón J. Vilalta Suárez, Descripción del Síndrome de Alienación Parental en una muestra forense (Description of the Parental Alienation Syndrome in a Forensic Sample). Psicothema, Vol. 23(4), 2011:636-641.

    Psychiatria Danubina

        Leo Sher, Parental Alienation and Suicide in Men. Psychiatria Danubina, 2015; Vol. 27(3), 2015:288–289.

    Psychiatria polska (in Polish)

        I. Namysłowska, J. Heitzman & A. Siewierska, Gardner syndrome-parent alienation syndrome (PAS). Diagnosis or family reality? Psychiatria polska, Vol. 43(1), 2009:5-17

    Psychological Bulletin

        Jennifer Jill Harman, Edward Kruk & Denise A. Hines, Parental alienating behaviors: An unacknowledged form of family violence. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 144(12), 2018:1275-1299.

    Psychologist Papers (same journal as Papeles del Psicólogo, not counted twice)

        R. Vilalta & Maxime Winberg Noda, On the myth of parental alienation syndrome (PAS) and the DSM-5Psychologist Papers, Vol. 38(3), 2017:224-231.  Comments: The authors deflect from the PA issue in two ways:

    1. They do not discuss PA as a pathological family dynamic - the focus is built around the semantics relating to PAS.  2. The concept of PA is built into five already existing diagnosis in the DSM-5.

    Psychology in the Schools

        Raymond L. Calabrese, John W. Miller & Buddy Dooley, The identification of alienated parents and children: Implications for school psychologists. Psychology in the Schools, Vol. 24(2), 1987:145-150.
    /100

    Psychology, Public Policy and the Law

        Richard A. Warshak, When evaluators get it wrong: False positive IDs and parental alienationPsychology, Public Policy and Law, Vol. 26(1), 2020:54-68.

        Jennifer J. Harman & Demosthenes Lorandos, Preprint of Allegations of Family Violence in Court: How Pa-rental Alienation Affects Judicial Outcomes. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, Vol. X(X), 14 December, 2020:1-25.

    Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria (Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry)

        Roberta Pena, Hélio Lauar & Alcina Barros, Forensic psychiatry assessment during parental alienation claims: two cases with different outcomes. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, Vol. 42(2), 2020:453-454.

    Revista Psicologí a Educativa (in Spanish)

       José Manuel Aguilar Cuenca, Interferencias de las relaciones paterno filiales: El Síndrome de alienación parental y las nuevas formas de violencia contra la infancia. Revista Psicologí a Educativa, Vol. 13(2), 2007:101-116.

    Seen and Heard

        Sue Whitcombe, Parental alienation or justifiable estrangement? Assessing a child’s resistance to a parent in the UK. Seen and Heard, Vol. 27(3), 2017:31-47.

    Social Work (Maatskaplike Werk, Zambia)

        Elsabé Bosch-Brits, Cornelia Wessels & Adri Roux, Fathers' experience and perceptions of parent alienation in high-conflict divorce. Social Work, Vol. 54(1), 2018:91-110.

    Social Work Today

        Amy J.L. Baker, Parental alienation syndrome: The parent-child disconnect. Social Work Today, Vol. 8(6), 2008:26- (about six pages).

    Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture (in French)

        Aurélie Haroche, Les Soins à l'enfant face à l'aliénation parentale (Caring for Children in the Face of Parental Alienation). Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture, Vol. 35(280), 2014:8.

    The Japanese Society for Law and Psychology

        Fujiko Goto , Satoshi Aoki & Yukihiro Mashiko, 離婚による親子引き離しの問題点と共同親権の可能性 : 法と心理学の対話(法と心理学会第13回大会ワークショップ) (Problems of parent-child separation due to divorce and possibility of joint custody: Dialogue between law and psychology (Also presented at 13th Annual Meeting of the Society of Law and Psychology)). The Japanese Society for Law and Psychology, Vol. 13(1), 2013:76-81.

    The Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law

        Julie Doughty, Nina Maxwell & Tom Slater, Professional responses to ‘parental alienation’: research-informed practice. Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, Vol. 42(1), 2020:68-79.

    The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law

        Timothy M. Houchin, John Ranseen, Phillip A. K. Hash & Daniel J. Bartnicki, The parental alienation debate belongs in the courtroom, not in DSM-5. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Vol. 40(1), 2012:127-131.

        Linda Gottlieb, PAS. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Vol. 40(3), 2012:445-446.

        Judith M. Pilla, Letter to the Editor (Response to T. Houchin et al., The Parental Alienation Debate Belongs in the Courtroom, Not in DSM-5). The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Vol. 40(3), 2012:446.

        M.H. Stone, Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS), The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Vol. 40(3), 2012:447.

        Cheryl D. Willis (Book Review), Parental Alienation: The Handbook For Mental Health and Legal Professionals. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Vol. 43(2), 2015:258-259.

    /110


    The Judges Journal

       Ira Daniel Turkat, Management of Visitation Interference. The Judges Journal, Vol. 36, 1997:17-47.

    The Psychologist

        Sue Whitcombe, Parental alienation – time to notice, time to intervene. The Psychologist, Vol. 27(1), 2014:32-34.

    The Tennessee Trial Lawyer

        Helen Sfikas Rogers, The Phenomenon of Parental Alienation. The Tennessee Trial Lawyer, Summer 2018:11-13.

    Tidskriftet Den Norske Legeforening (A journal for Norwegian medical practioners, In Norwegian)

        Eivind Meland, Lena Hellblom Sjögren & Frode Thuen, Foreldrefremmedgjøring som helserisiko. Tidskriftet Den Norske Legeforening, Nr. 6, 2019.     Comment: This article is entirely focused on PA.

    Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie (in Dutch)

        C. Migchels & D. De Wachter, Ouderverstotingssyndroom en de controverse rond psychiatrische diagnostiek (Parental Alienation and the Controversy Surrounding Psychiatric Diagnostics). Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie, Vol. 59(8), 2017:482-488. (Abstract in English)

    Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi (Turkish Journal of Psychiatry)

        Fuat Torun, Ebeveyn Yabancılaştırma Sendromu (Parental Alienation Syndrome), Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Vol. 3(3), 2011:466-482.     Comment: Abstract in English.

    Wisconsin Journal of Family Law

        Philip M.  Stahl, Understanding and evaluating alienation in high-conflict custody cases. Wisconsin Journal of Family Law, 24(1), 2003:20–26.     Comment: This article specifically addresses PA.

    /117


    List B: Some publications misrepresenting the PA concept

    including rebuttals etc


    To comment all the published misrepresentations of the PA theory and concept would probably require the equivalent of many hundreds of pages detailing erronous assump-tions and methodo-logies, databiased statistics, logical flaws and blends with preconcei-ved ideas and political view-points. Therefore the list below probably will expand over a course of several years. What is referred to below are, however, should be sufficient to show how some authors consciously or unconsciously have sabotaged what is known about parental alienation. As an introduction to the topic of misrepresentation of PA I suggest the articles by Deirdre C. Rand and William Bernet in Am. J. Fam. Therapy below./BC, 10 November 2021.


    American Journal of Family Therapy

       Deirdre C. Rand, Parental Alienation Critics and the Politics of Science. The American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 39(1), 2011:48-71.

       William Bernet, Recurrent Misinformation Regarding Parental Alienation TheoryThe American Journal of Family Therapy, 2021:1-15 (in press).

    Children’s Legal Rights Journal

       Jennifer Hoult, The Evidentiary Admissibility of Parental Alienation Syndrome: Science, Law, and Policy. Children’s Legal Rights Journal, Vol. 26(1), 2006:1-61.

       Comment: William Bernet (2021) points at the following misleading statement by J. Hoult: “By diagnosing PAS solely on the basis of the child’s symptoms, the DDC tautologically presumes pathology, parental contribution, and lack of justification, the very factors that Gardner claimed distinguish PAS from other forms of [contact refusal]” (emphasis added) (p. 9)." W. Bernet (2021) writes: "When Hoult cited “DDC,” she was referring “differential diagnosis criteria” Gardner (2004a //Link to the manuscript - Gardner passed away in 2003//). Nothing in that article suggests that Gardner thought PAS could be diagnosed “solely on the basis of the child’s symptoms” or that an evaluator should “presume pathology, parental contribution, and lack of justification.”

    Child Maltreatment

       Kathleen C. Faller, The parental alienation syndrome: what is it and what data support it? Child Maltreatment, vol. 3(2), 1998:100-115.

      Comments: 1. Fallers methods and actions were completely debunked by Demonsthenes Lorandos (referring to legal scrutiny): Parental Alienation Toronto Conference (2009) - Demosthenes Lorandos, YouTube, 2016 (19 min 48 s->29 min 18 s).After close inspection and analysis by law and psychology experts it was concluded that Faller interviews with children were suggestive, coercive and untrustworthy. 2. Comment: One of Faller's erronous assumptions is that PAS is the same as physical and sexual abuse.

    Family Court Review

       William Bernet, Parental Alienation and Misinformation Proliferation. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:293-307.

       Madelyn S. Milchman, Robert Geffner & Joan S. Meier, Ideology and rhetoric replace science and reason in
    some parental alienation literature and advocacy: A critique. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:340-361.

        William Bernet, Response to “Ideology and Rhetoric Replace Science and Reason in Some Parental Alienation Literature and Advocacy: A Critique,” by Milchman, Geffner, and Meier. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:362-367.

        Demosthenes Lorandos, Response to Milchman, Geffner, and Meier Ideology and Rhetoric Replace Science and Reason in Some Parental Alienation Literature and Advocacy: A Critique. Family Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:371-372. (No abstract is available)

    Family Law Quarterly

       Carol S. Bruch, Parental alienation syndrome and parental alienation: Getting it wrong in child custody cases

    Family Law Quarterly, Vol. 35(3), 2001:527-552.

       Comment: 1. Bruchs article has been completely debunked by Demonsthenes Lorandos: Parental Alienation Toronto Conference (2009) - Demosthenes Lorandos, YouTube, 2016 (15 min 18 s->19 min 47 s).After close inspection and analysis by law and psychology experts it was concluded that Faller interviews with children were suggestive, coercive and untrustworthy.

    GWU Law School Public Law Research

       Joan S. Meier, S. Dickson, C. O’Sullivan, L. Rosen & J. Hayes, Child custody outcomes in cases involving parental alienation and abuse allegations. GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2019 –56, 2019:1-30. SSRN. https://ssrn.com/abstracte3448062

    Journal of Child Custody

       Joan S. Meier, A Historical Perspective on Parental Alienation Syndrome and Parental Alienation. Journal of Child Custody, Vol. 6(3-4), 2009:232-257.

       Marjorie Gans Walters & Steven Friedlander, Finding a Tenable Middle Space: Understanding the Role of Clinical Interventions When a Child Refuses Contact with a Parent. Journal of Child Custody, Vol. 7(4), 2010:287-328.

       W. O’Donohue, L.T. Benuto & N. Bennett, Examining the validity of parental alienation syndrome. Journal of Child Custody, Vol. 13(2-3), 2016:113-125.

       Comment: William Bernet (2021) points at the following incorrect sentences (representing misunderstanding of PA theory) by O'Donohue et al.: "Absent any scientific data at all, Gardener [sic] advanced the claim that when there is an alienating parent, a child will, fairly inevitably, develop a series of problematic behaviors and/or reac-tions. He also claimed that the reverse inference was valid; specifically, that clinicians could conclude that there is an alienating parent when they observed children exhibiting certain behaviors” (emphasis added) (p. 114)."

    W. Bernet (2021) writes: " Both sentences are incorrect. PA advocates say that contact refusal is sometimes cau-sed by the preferred parent’s alienating behaviors, but it may also have other causes. O’Donohue et al. provided no citation to Gardner or anyone else for these erroneous statements."

       Bruna Calado, Henry Otgaar & Peter Muris, Are children better witnesses than adolescents? Developmental trends in different false memory paradigms. Journal of Child Custody, Vol. 15(4), 2019:330-348.

    Journal of Forensic Sciences

       Vincenzo Puppo, Commentary On: An Objective Measure of Splitting in Parental Alienation: The Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire. Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 63(1), 2018:342.

       Comments: First this author obviously is not acquainted with all the empirical studies of the PA dynamic. Second, PAS is based on eight symptoms and behaviors of the alienated child. The author makes an issue of whether the children have a "disease" or are mentally ill or not. Obviously, he does not understand that the symptoms and behaviors - and in parti-cular the lack of ambivalence define what the child has experienced: A malicious parent who has attacked the child's lo-ving relationship with the other parent. This phenomenon should not be called a "disease" - instead it is about a patholo-gical family dynamic where the driving parent almost always has several psychiatric personality disorders (PS) combined (Narcissistic PD, Borderline PD, Anti-Social PD and often also paranoia are consistently mentioned in the professional litterature). The problem is not a semantic word game - what is important is what actions are taken to help the affected child. In my (BC) opinion, I find Puppo's comments irresponsible as they deflect a form of serious psychological child abuse - even the moderate level of PAS should be treated as a medical emergency. A formal and more detailed rebut-tal appeared in  William Bernet, Parental alienation and misinformationFamily Court Review, Vol. 58(2), 2020:293-307.

    Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

       Cheri L. Wood, The parental alienation syndrome: A dangerous aura of reliability. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, 27(4), 1994:1367–1415.

       Comment: William Bernet (2021) points at the following misleading statement by C. Wood: "In short, the psychological stressors resulting from divorce demonstrate that children’s ill feelings toward either parent are often a natural part of the dissolution process. The list of explanations—which is illustrative rather than exhau-stive—that provides reasons for children having such feelings furnishes some credible alternatives to the PAS theory that when the children have ill feelings toward their fathers, their mother must be the cause” (emphasis added) (p. 1390).". W. Bernet (2021) writes: "There has never been a principle of PAS theory “that when the children have ill feelings toward their fathers, their mother must be the cause.” Wood provided no source for that statement."

    Psychology, Public Policy and Law

        Jennifer J. Harman & Demosthenes Lorandos, Preprint of Allegations of Family Violence in Court: How Pa-rental Alienation Affects Judicial Outcomes. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, Vol. X(X), 14 December, 2020:1-25.
       Comment: This paper is an analysis of the article by J. Meier et al. (GWU Law School Public Law Research, 2019). From the abstract: "
    We failed to find any support for the conclusions made by Meier (2019). Parents found (versus alleged) to alienate their children, regardless of their gender, had greater odds of losing parenting time, losing custody of their children, and losing their case. These findings held even when the accusing parent had been found to have been abusive. Losses or decreases in custody were not found when the (alleged) alienated parent was found to have been abusive. Results indicate that the majority of courts carefully weigh allegations of all forms of family violence in their determinations about the best interests of children. These findings, along with several others, raise concerns that the methodological, analytical, and statistical problems we detail about Meier’s report (2019) make her conclusions untrustworthy."


    (Is it PA?)

    (PA is often missed)

    (Key concepts)

    (Child abuse)

    (Damages to the children)

    (Children's wishes)

    (Who are the PA drivers?)

    (PA and the law)

    (The authorities)

    (Prevention & therapy)

    (Other countries)

    (Support groups)

    (Who am I?)